Chapters and divisions
  1. Each chapter starts in a new page, with the heading in mixed case lettering, centered 1 inch from the top edge of the page. The text starts four spaces below the heading.
  2. Section headings are centered and written in mixed case letters, separated by four spaces from the text above and two from the text below.
  3. Subsection headings appear at the left margin, not indented, separated by two spaces from the surrounding text.
  4. The divisions are numbered according to one of two possible schemes: a) Arabic numbers separated by period(s). The particle ‘.0’ (period-zero) is appended chapter numbers: 1.0 First Chapter, 1.1 First Section, 1.1.1 First subsection, First sub-subsection. b) A combination of numerals and letters, and omitting the numbers of higher divisions: I. First Chapter, A. First Section, 1. First subsection, a. First sub-subsection. However, references within the text to other sections or subsections should include the whole set of numbers.
  1. If the Introduction precedes the first chapter or division as a separate unit, the heading Introduction should be centered 1 inch from the top edge of the page. The text begins four spaces below the heading.
  2. If the Introduction is the opening statement of the first chapter or division, the chapter title should be centered 1 inch from the top edge of the page and Introduction used as the first subheading.
  3. The page on which the Introduction begins is page 1 of the thesis or dissertation.
Main Body
  1. This section is the substance of the thesis or dissertation, including all chapters, divisions, and subdivisions as indicated by headings and subheadings identical to those listed in the Table of Contents.
  2. All tables and figures should be placed as close as possible to the text they illustrate.
  3. Most schools and departments at the University of Pittsburgh prefer that the thesis or dissertation be written as a coherent whole. However, published material authored by the student and based on research conducted for the study may be included if the student’s department and school have a written policy indicating their acceptability. Published journal articles or a section prepared in a journal format may be included either in the body of the document or in the appendix. In any case, for a dissertation, the published work must be logically connected by added text and be integrated into the document in a coherent manner, and sufficient detail must be presented to satisfy the characteristics of a dissertation.
  4. If the previously published material is included in the body of the document, it must be presented in a manner consistent with the remainder of the text: i.e., identical typeface, margins, and consistent numbering of tables, figures, and footnotes. Bibliographic citations should be integrated with those for the rest of the document.
  5. If the previously published material is placed in the appendix, its size may be adjusted to ensure that the margins are sufficient to support microfilming. Appended previously published material may retain the originally published numbers for tables, figures, footnotes, and bibliographic entries.
  6. For all previously published material not in public domain and not intended as “fair use,” the student must submit by a permission statement signed by the copyright owner(s) to the approved office in the student’s school or department. For more information on copyright issues, see the University Library System’s “Copyright Information” webpage. Links to more copyright information can be found on the University’s ETD Copyright Help webpage.
  7. ETDs may include links to external files, i.e., files that are not submitted by the student using the online ETD Database submission process. These files may reside anywhere on the World Wide Web. However, the student must verify that these links are active at the time of submission. It should be noted that since the World Wide Web is a constantly changing environment, over time external links are likely to change dramatically or disappear completely. The University will not update, change or delete any embedded links in a student’s ETD files.
Summary and Conclusions

These usually constitute the last major chapter or division.